PAST PROJECTS: FUEL CELLS AND ENERGY STORAGE

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FUEL CELLS AND ENERGY STORAGE INVENTIONS AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT GALLERY

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  • 01373147 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 02 TUTS Sponsor Levels FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 0348001 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 03 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 04-2195FN FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 06FCSworkshop_serfass FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 088 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 09.27.07%20On_Site%20Power%20Solutions FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 1023155647653 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 102a FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 12-03-28_electrolysers_and_fuel_cell_commercialisation FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 12 HydrogenAsFuel FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 130 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 1720 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 19_096_TS4 B FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 1 000111 AAAA THE LOBBYIST BLOCKADE OF CLEAN ENERGY.pdf
  • 1Power HandOuts 80724 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 2002-04-09_HYBRID FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 2002-04-12_CARB_REPORT FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 2003_C_ABS FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 2005 APR Schedule 51805 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 2005_doe_h2_program_schedule FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 28890d FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 28890pp2sodiumhydride FUEL CELL.pdf
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  • 3 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 3a_2002_01_1918 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 418928a_r FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 5038_h2_cost_competitive FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 54314087 FUEL CELL.pdf
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  • 6)%20Diagoro%20Mori%20HighPressureMH_IPHE FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 99ja032_full FUEL CELL.pdf
  • 9%20DC_EPA_LBNL_CEE FUEL CELL.pdf
  • aabc_lv FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Abe FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ABSTRACT139 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • adeo_specs FUEL CELL.pdf
  • AFGHAN LITHIUM SCAM_ countering_the_anti-hydrogen_trolls_and_shills_1-21 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Agenda-MFC-C FUEL CELL.pdf
  • AirProductsMerrillLynch5-22-02 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • al_material_matters_v2n2 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ALANATE2 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • alanate33098_sec3 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • alanateproto FUEL CELL.pdf
  • AMMONBORANE FUEL CELL.pdf
  • AN1 Joseck FUEL CELL.pdf
  • AN2 Mann FUEL CELL.pdf
  • AN3 Greene FUEL CELL.pdf
  • AN4 Short FUEL CELL.pdf
  • AN6 Lasher FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ANP1 Dougherty FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ANP2 James FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ANP3 Vidas FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ANP4 Tolley FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ANP5 Placet FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ANP6 Ruth FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ANP7 Wang FUEL CELL.pdf
  • appliedhydrogenslidepresentation-31208-1234654248813940-3 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • appliedhydrogenslidepresentation-31208-1234654248813940-3 FUEL CELL.ppt
  • Article426FCTsmal-stat-survey FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Article_1081_Angstrom_FCT (2) FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Article_1081_Angstrom_FCT FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Article_379_FCTfcvsurvey1201 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Article_640_SmallStatSurvey0703 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Article_941_WhitepaperSustainableEnergy%20-%20Sandy%20Thomas FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Article_946_Thomson Scientific White paper - Hydrogen revolution FUEL CELL.pdf
  • article FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Asia-Pacific-alternative-fuel-monitor FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Asia-Pacific Oil demand FUEL CELL.pdf
  • AutoCompaniesonFuelCells FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Automakers Drive Towards Hydrogen Cars _ NPR FUEL CELL.pdf
  • b05009 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • battery issues FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Beyond Peak Capital (Part 2)-TheCostofFossilFuelDepletion FUEL CELL.pdf
  • BLAME-LITHIUM-ION.pdf
  • BLAME LITHIUM ION - OBAMA AND MUSK RARE EARTH MINING SCAM.pdf
  • BLDC PistonDiaph-01041526182619107  1723 8-96 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Bliejs FUEL CELL.pdf
  • BOROHYDRIDE1 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • BOROHYDRIDE2 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • BOROHYDRIDE3 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • brelay_b FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Brelay FUEL CELL.pdf
  • BROCHUREVECTRIXELECTRIC FUEL CELL.pdf
  • brodrick FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Buckley_Hydrogen_Storage_Introduction_sm FUEL CELL.pdf
  • BUGS2 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • BUGS FUEL CELL.pdf
  • car24nov03 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • cartech FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Castelli2 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • CD117a-030129 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • CELL SYSTEM FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ch0c FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ch5 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Characteristics_KPPs_DC%20Worksheet_8_07 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • COCKPITS FUEL CELL.pdf
  • conversions-factsheet FUEL CELL.pdf
  • COST-fuelcelleconomics-2004 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • COST39104 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • COST ESTIMATE FUEL CELL.pdf
  • COSTefchp_fuelcell4 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • costofHStorage FUEL CELL.pdf
  • COSTtiax_cost_analysis_pres FUEL CELL.pdf
  • CT-2223-1-04-6 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • D04-23_EleyPerfCntrEFRpt FUEL CELL.pdf
  • d80109 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • darnell FUEL CELL.pdf
  • DATA CENTER SOLUTION 08 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • DATCENTERPPT FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Deffeyes Graphs + Comments (2) FUEL CELL.pdf
  • deliv_analysis_thomas FUEL CELL.pdf
  • delivery_tech_team_roadmap FUEL CELL.pdf
  • DeMartini FUEL CELL.pdf
  • DEPT OF ENERGY GREEN MURDER Lithium-Niobate-MSDS.pdf
  • DEPT OF ENERGY GREEN MURDER lithiumion_psds.pdf
  • DGN02br FUEL CELL.pdf
  • dgn02pr2 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • DGN02sp[1] FUEL CELL.pdf
  • doealanates FUEL CELL.pdf
  • dokserv FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Download1 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Download FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Duvall_-_Workshop_-_PHEV_Overview_Final FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Duvall_PHEV_Env_Assess FUEL CELL.pdf
  • E00-25_HypercarH2andDisUtil FUEL CELL.pdf
  • early_markets_forklifts FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Eaton_PHEV_071202 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • economics of hydrogen production FUEL CELL.pdf
  • economicstudy FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ecs_paper_final13103 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ED1 Cooper FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ED2 Borger FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ED3 Griffin FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ED4 Williamson FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ED5 Nagle FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ED6 Spruill FUEL CELL.pdf
  • EDP1 Armstrong FUEL CELL.pdf
  • EDP2 Andersen FUEL CELL.pdf
  • EDP3 Tidball FUEL CELL.pdf
  • EDP4 Serfass FUEL CELL.pdf
  • EDP5 Kripowicz FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Energy%20efficiency%20in%20the%20power%20grid FUEL CELL.pdf
  • engineersforum FUEL CELL.pdf
  • EuropaA FUEL CELL.pdf
  • EVWORLD FEATURE_ A123 Delivers on Nanotechnology Promise _BATTERY _ A123 _ L FUEL CELL.pdf
  • exp1_bolton FUEL CELL.pdf
  • exp2_harris FUEL CELL.pdf
  • exp4_szymanski[1] FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC10 Ross FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC11 Zelenay FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC12 Hicks FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC13 Campbell FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC14 Atanasoski FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC15 Popov FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC16 SwiderLyons FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC17 Adzic FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC18 Foure FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC19 Atanassova FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC1 Lightner FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC20 Grot FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC21 Shore FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC22 Haack FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC23 Tortorelli Brady More FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC24 Krause FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC25 Krause FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC26 Schwartz FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC27 Gee FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC28 Bailey FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC29 Pont FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC2 DeCastro FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC30 Knight FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC31 Gehman FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC32 Sievers FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC33 Wells FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC34 Zelenay FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC35 Ahluwalia FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC36 Carter FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC37 Garzon FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC38 Arif FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC3 Debe FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC40 Borup FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC41 Kim FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC42 McIntyre FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC43 Simpkins FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC44Stevens FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC45 Holmes FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC46 Clark FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC47 Vogel FUEL CELL.pdf
  • fc48_stone FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC48 Stone FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC49 Taylor FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC4 Protsailo FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC50 Newman  FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC5 Wilson FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC6 Zawodzinski FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC7 Myers FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC8 Staudt FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC9 Escobedo FUEL CELL.pdf
  • fc efficiency market FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC_Net_Metering_Final FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FC NIche markets FUEL CELL.pdf
  • fchandbook FUEL CELL.pdf
  • fcis_06 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • fcm00r0 (4) FUEL CELL.pdf
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  • fcm01r0 (4) FUEL CELL.pdf
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  • fcm06r0 (4) FUEL CELL.pdf
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  • fcm07r0 (4) FUEL CELL.pdf
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  • fcm08r0 (4) FUEL CELL.pdf
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  • fcm09r0 (4) FUEL CELL.pdf
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  • fcm10r0 (4) FUEL CELL.pdf
  • fcm10r0 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • fcm11r0 (4) FUEL CELL.pdf
  • fcm11r0 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP10 Jiang FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP11 Khaleel FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP12 Turner FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP13 Weil FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP14 Thompson FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP15 Yee FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP16 Kelly FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP17 Schneider FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP18 Alam FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP19 Pesaran FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP1 Spangler FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP21 Mohapatra FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP22 Narayanan FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP25 Ahmed FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP27 Rockward FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP28 Pivovar FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP2 DeCarmine FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP31 Norrick FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP3 Turner FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP4 Pivovar FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP5 Cornelius FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP6 Ma FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP8 Myers FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FCP9 Kepler FUEL CELL.pdf
  • fcp_18_alam[1] FUEL CELL.pdf
  • fcp_18_alam FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FINAL_PEM_Report_Vol_II FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FINALarticleTransportPolicy FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Fleets-Fuels14January08 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • foungrnt_october02_mcgorry FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Fuel_Cell_Industry__Longer-Term_Potential,_But_High_Relative_Costs_Limit_Near-Term_Opportunity FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Fuel_Cells_for_Residential FUEL CELL.pdf
  • fuel cells FUEL CELL.pdf
  • fuelcell1999 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • fuelcellprojectconclusion FUEL CELL.pdf
  • fuelcellreport193-1 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • fuelCells00FUELS FUEL CELL.pdf
  • fuelcellsclimatechange FUEL CELL.pdf
  • FueloftheFuture FUEL CELL.pdf
  • fulltext FUEL CELL.pdf
  • GE NORYL FUEL CELL.PDF
  • GenCore_Substation_Datasheet FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Getting Started with your Autodesk Digital Prototyping Software FUEL CELL.pdf
  • GovBusinessSeminar01f FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Grassilli FUEL CELL.pdf
  • GRID SHIFTTaylor FUEL CELL.pdf
  • GRIDSHIFTdefinitions_app_distgen FUEL CELL.pdf
  • GRIDSHIFTDistributech2000SlidesA FUEL CELL.pdf
  • GRIDSHIFTenergycon_fasht_final FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Group%2002%20(Hydrogen%20vs%20petrol) FUEL CELL.pdf
  • H2-LCA_EHEC_Schindler_03SEP2003 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • H2 Companies FUEL CELL.pdf
  • H2_Metal_Hydride_en FUEL CELL.pdf
  • H2 TransportHELPSpeechMcGuireB FUEL CELL.pdf
  • h2homesystem[1] FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Hnet2 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • homefc FUEL CELL.pdf
  • http___www.mtu.edu_news_stories_2010_may_story26642-print FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Humorous Guide To Peak Oil (2) FUEL CELL.pdf
  • hv_report_12-17 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • hy7110miniheater FUEL CELL.pdf
  • hy7115DC Microheater FUEL CELL.pdf
  • hybrid market FUEL CELL.pdf
  • hyd end use FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Hyd National Vision FUEL CELL.pdf
  • hyd storage FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Hydride Storage Company FUEL CELL.pdf
  • HYDRIDE STORAGE SANDIA NOTES FUEL CELL.PDF
  • HYDRO-GEN FUEL CELL.pdf
  • hydrogen & climate FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Hydrogen DOE Summary FUEL CELL.pdf
  • hydrogen FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Hydrogen IC Engine Boosting Performance and NOx Study 2003-01-06311 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Hydrogen IC Engine Boosting Performance and NOx Study 2003-01-0631 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • hydrogen(ipts) FUEL CELL.pdf
  • hydrogen_pres005_h2net FUEL CELL.pdf
  • hydrogen storage economics FUEL CELL.pdf
  • HydrogenandtheLaw FUEL CELL.pdf
  • hydrogentort FUEL CELL.pdf
  • HyPM 65 Drawing 20050117 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • HyPM HD-XR brochure-06 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • iGenProductSheet_Reduced FUEL CELL.pdf
  • iib1_sung FUEL CELL.pdf
  • iid1_milliken FUEL CELL.pdf
  • IND GASES FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Integrated Oil FUEL CELL.pdf
  • intelec-2006_ovonic-fuel-cell-co_paper FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Ishitani FUEL CELL.pdf
  • issuebr2 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • iv_1_introduction FUEL CELL.pdf
  • JPMORGAN_ALT_ENERGY FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Kalhammer_-_Workshop_-_Battery_Final FUEL CELL.pdf
  • karpen battery FUEL CELL.pdf
  • kjaer.phev FUEL CELL.pdf
  • labnews11-01-02 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Lardelli oil presentation edited for distrib (2) FUEL CELL.pdf
  • LIMNIAARRAY2008 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • LIMNIAARRAYretechSANI FUEL CELL.pdf
  • lipman-edwards-kammen-fuelcelleconomics-2004[1] FUEL CELL.pdf
  • lithium-ion FUEL CELL.pdf
  • lithium2.mp4
  • LITHIUM ANALYSIS 4.pdf
  • lithium danger.pdf
  • lithium danger b.pdf
  • lithium ion batteries grow worse over time.pdf
  • LITHIUM ION BATTERIES KEEP EXPLODING.pdf
  • LITHIUM ION BATTERIES KEEP EXPLODING - OBAMA AND MUSK RARE EARTH MINING SCAM.pdf
  • LITHIUM ION BATTERIES MAKE E-CIGS EXPLODE.pdf
  • LITHIUM ION BATTERY FIRE RISK.pdf
  • LITHIUM ION BATTERY FIRE RISK - OBAMA AND MUSK RARE EARTH MINING SCAM - TESLA CARS LITHIUM FIRES COVERUP.pdf
  • lithium ion insider starts to fail.pdf
  • LITHIUM ION LETTER DEAR JOHN.pdf
  • lithium ion scam tanks.pdf
  • lithium ion scam tanks - OBAMA AND MUSK RARE EARTH MINING SCAM.pdf
  • lithium not available.pdf
  • LITHIUM SCAM1.pdf
  • LITHIUM SCAM3.pdf
  • LITHIUM SCAM3 - OBAMA AND MUSK RARE EARTH MINING SCAM.pdf
  • LITHIUM SCAM4.pdf
  • LITHIUM SCAM5.pdf
  • lithiumgas.pdf
  • LM NANOCERAM CHEMISTRY FUEL CELL.pdf
  • LoganNHCPresent3-8-07 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • May-99PEReprint FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Meier_Paris_2%20July%202007 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • MetalHYdride FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Mohring FUEL CELL.pdf
  • MyersPaper2005 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • NancyGioiaEVS23Speechv3jkd FUEL CELL.pdf
  • NHA04_Lolla_Paper FUEL CELL.pdf
  • nha_stetson_presentation_2003 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • NICAD BATTERIES FUEL CELL.pdf
  • NIST_IR_7131 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Nitz_PHEV FUEL CELL.pdf
  • NN0094a FUEL CELL.pdf
  • NN0094b FUEL CELL.pdf
  • NN0094c FUEL CELL.pdf
  • NN0094d FUEL CELL.pdf
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  • NN0094p FUEL CELL.pdf
  • NN0094q FUEL CELL.pdf
  • NN0094s FUEL CELL.pdf
  • NN0094u FUEL CELL.pdf
  • NN0094w FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Oil and Gas E-P Weekly FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ospinaalvarado_angelica_m_200712_mast FUEL CELL.pdf
  • Outback_FX FUEL CELL.pdf
  • ovonic-hydrogen_dot_exempt-e13280 FUEL CELL.pdf
  • pathforward FUEL CELL.pdf
  • PD10 Liu FUEL CELL.pdf
  • PD11 Sammells FUEL CELL.pdf
  • PD13 Lau FUEL CELL.pdf
  • PD15 Melis FUEL CELL.pdf
  • PD16 Ghirardi FUEL CELL.pdf
  • PD17 Lee FUEL CELL.pdf
  • PD19 Blake FUEL CELL.pdf
  • PD1 Devlin FUEL CELL.pdf
  • PD20 Miller FUEL CELL.pdf
  • PD23 Cropley FUEL CELL.pdf
  • PD26 Ihrahim FUEL CELL.pdf
  • PD27 Pickard FUEL CELL.pdf
  • PD29 Lewis FUEL CELL.pdf
  • PD2 Tao FUEL CELL.pdf
  • PD30 Hechanova FUEL CELL.pdf
  • PD31 Sherman FUEL CELL.pdf
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Every year since 2000 our research group has checked in with consumer car owners and auto industry suppliers. The bottom line has always been that no consumer electric car market will EVER happen until every consumer can charge their car at their home garage or home apartment parking spot. NOBODY, in any significant numbers, is going to drive many miles to a charging station, wait in line to get to the charger and then wait more than 4 minutes for their car to charge. The current time to charge most electric cars is 40 minutes with all of the fussing around accounted for.

We proposed a hot-swap battery system that any consumer can use, without driving to some special location. A consumer can hot-swap a wheeled battery in less than two minutes.

Senators and government officials don't like that because they bought stock market investments in the ways that don't work. Those White House and Department of Energy officials get bribes and stock market payola from Proterra, Ener1, Tesla and the old school suppliers, so they will not allow non-lithium-ion batteries and they will not allow fuel cell and ultra-capacitors to exist. Those politicians will not allow the only solutions that work to get to market. Here is what we told the Department of Energy and the White House, in writing for the last decade:

The United States has about 100,000 public chargers, far fewer than Europe and China. It needs 10 times as many, auto experts say, to complete the switch from combustion engine vehicles.

Over the past year, the electric vehicle charging industry has been swept up in a Wall Street gold rush because of growing optimism about electric cars and trucks.

In President Biden’s vision of a green future, half of all new cars sold in 2030 will be electric. But something really basic is standing in the way of that plan: enough outlets to plug in all those cars and trucks.

The country has tens of thousands of public charging stations — the electric car equivalent of gas pumps — with about 110,000 chargers. But energy and auto experts say that number needs to be at least five to 10 times as big to achieve the president’s goal. Building that many will cost tens of billions of dollars, far more than the $7.5 billion that lawmakers have set aside in the infrastructure bill.

Private investors are pouring hundreds of millions of dollars into building chargers, but the business suffers from a chicken-and-egg problem: Sales of electric cars are not growing fast enough to make charging profitable. It could be years before most charging companies break even, let alone mint big profits like Exxon Mobil and Chevron.

Fast chargers — ones that can fill up an electric car battery in 20 to 40 minutes — cost tens of thousands of dollars but are typically used less than humdrum gas pumps. Yet the auto and energy industries need to build them to reassure people that they won’t be stranded in an electric car with no plug in sight.

“E.V. charging infrastructure is the single biggest barrier to E.V. adoption,” said Asad Hussain, a senior analyst at PitchBook, a research firm. “You talk to anyone who’s on the fence about buying an E.V. and the No. 1 concern that comes to mind is range anxiety.”

The European Union, which is further along in electrifying cars, had nearly 200,000 public charging points last year. China, where electric cars are even more common than in Europe, had more than 800,000 in 2020.

European and Chinese officials have offered better incentives and imposed tougher regulations in part because they want to win a global race to build the cars and trucks of the future. U.S. policies, including the infrastructure bill, have been more modest because most Republicans and some Democrats oppose the regulation and spending needed to quickly ditch fossil fuels.

Soon, even $7.5 billion won’t be enough to lay the groundwork for the electric age, Nick Nigro, founder of Atlas Public Policy, a consulting and research firm based in Washington, said about the proposed federal spending on charging stations.

“Is it sufficient? No,” he said. “But it gets things going.”

Most drivers today plug in their electric cars at home, and only occasionally use public charging stations. But those stations will be crucial, especially to those who live in apartments and people who drive long distances.

For years, start-ups, automakers and other companies have been slowly building chargers, mainly in California and other coastal states where most electric cars are sold. These businesses use different strategies to make money, and auto experts say it is not clear which will succeed. The company with the most stations, ChargePoint, sells chargers to individuals, workplaces, stores, condo and apartment buildings, and businesses with fleets of electric vehicles. It collects subscription fees for software that manages the chargers. Tesla offers charging mainly to get people to buy its cars. And others make money by selling electricity to drivers.

Once the poor cousin to the hip business of making sleek electric cars, the charging industry has been swept up in its own gold rush. Venture capital firms poured nearly $1 billion into charging companies last year, more than the five previous years combined, according to PitchBook. So far in 2021, venture capital investments are up to more than $550 million.

On Wall Street, publicly traded special purpose acquisition companies, or SPACs, have struck deals to buy eight charging companies out of 26 deals involving electric vehicle and related businesses, according to Dealogic, a research firm. The deals typically include an infusion of hundreds of millions of dollars from big investors like BlackRock.

“It’s early, and folks are trying to wrap their heads around what does the potential look like,” said Gabe Daoud Jr., a managing director and analyst at Cowen, an investment bank.

These businesses could benefit from the infrastructure bill, but it is not clear how the Biden administration would distribute money for charging stations.

Another unanswered question is who will be the Exxon Mobil of the electric car age. It might well be automakers.

Tesla, which makes about two-thirds of the electric cars sold in the United States, has built thousands of chargers, which it made free for early customers. The company could open its network to vehicles made by other automakers by the end of the year, its chief executive, Elon Musk, said in July.

Volkswagen also owns a charging network, Electrify America, which is already available to all makes of cars. In Europe, Volkswagen, BMW, Ford Motor, Daimler and other automakers jointly own a charging company called Ionity. Drivers pay fees to charge in both cases, but some automakers offer free charging for a few years to entice car buyers.

Energy giants like BP and Royal Dutch Shell have gotten into the business, too, by buying charging companies in Europe and the United States.

And 14 electric utilities from Maine to Texas have formed the Electric Highway Coalition to build stations at intervals of 100 miles or less. Utilities elsewhere are also building chargers, as are cities like Los Angeles and New York.

They are all competing in a tiny market: Less than 4 percent of new car sales and less than 1 percent of vehicles on U.S. roads are electric.

Charging companies claim they can succeed even if it takes years for electric vehicles to take over. Some businesses like ChargePoint have been around for more than a decade, while others raising money don’t have much of a track record.

The chief executive of ChargePoint, Pasquale Romano, says his company avoids some costs by using contract manufacturers to build equipment and selling stations to employers who own electric vehicle fleets, retailers and others, who also buy software and maintenance subscriptions.

​​“Everyone thinks this can go fast, and it can’t,” Mr. Romano said. “You have to get in and start pedaling to help shape what it looks like.”

Volta, a smaller charging company, places chargers near the entrances of retailers like Whole Foods Market and Walgreens. The chargers show ads, generating revenue, and the stations pay for themselves within a few years, said the company’s president and a co-founder, Chris Wendel. “It’s a sponsored service brought to you by brands that care about what you’re doing.”

But some companies have stumbled. In December, TPG Pace Beneficial Finance, a SPAC backed partly by TPG, the private equity firm, announced that it would buy EVBox, an Amsterdam-based maker of charging equipment, valuing the company at $1.4 billion.

In January, Jim Cramer, the host of CNBC’s “Mad Money,” said EVBox was his favorite charging company because it is an established player in Europe. Shares of TPG Pace Beneficial climbed to $31 in February, from around $10.

But this month, the companies delayed the merger’s closing because EVBox has not yet released its audited financial statements for 2020. TPG Pace said in a regulatory filing that there was “significant uncertainty” about the deal’s completion, and its shares have fallen back to about $10.

A spokeswoman for EVBox declined to comment.

Mr. Cramer no longer stands by the EVBox pick. “I suppose we put too much faith in the financials as presented to investors at the time,” he said in an email.

Since the start of 2020, 16 proposed SPAC mergers have been canceled or withdrawn. And investors and regulators have raised questions about the optimistic claims made by executives and promoters of SPACs.

Yet investors continue to pour money into charging. One charging company, EVgo, completed a SPAC deal and started trading in July. Trading in Volta started last month. Several other deals have been announced in recent months, including for Tritium, which makes fast chargers; Wallbox, which sells charging equipment, software and related services; and Allego, which operates a large charging network in Europe.

Some investors think that charging cars might not be the best approach.

Last month, Ample, which aims to build stations where drained E.V. batteries are replaced with charged ones, raised $160 million. Raed Masri, founder of Transform VC, an investor in Ample, said battery swapping would be better for people without a place to plug in their cars because it is much faster.

“They need a quick energy delivery system, and only swapping provides that,” Mr. Masri said.

Other investors are making lots of bets. Energy Impact Partners, a private equity firm based in New York, has invested in several charging networks, a repair app for charging stations and an app that optimizes charging.

Cassie Bowe, a principal at the firm, said that with electric vehicle sales growing fast, it was urgent to build a network to support them. “There’s no more time,” she said. “We need this infrastructure fast.”

The reality is that the current plan can never work. There is not enough money, consumer interest, logistical embrace or other support for public chargers to ever be more than a feel good fancy. The consumer desire for speed-of-delivery increases over 10% per year. Nobody is going to put up with the wait, especially after sitting in rush-hour congestion every morning and night.

Electric cars will never happen in any volume unless every home and apartment has a charger, the rates for the chargers are less than gasoline and the batteries or energy cassettes can be instantly hot-swapped.

Published on - by adminSDR532w2775

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